Shah and Shah: Correlation between blood groups and blood hemoglobin levels in pregnant females of rural area of Himachal Pradesh


Introduction

According to the World Health Organization criteria, anemia is defined as blood hemoglobin concentration <13 g/dl or hematocrit <39% in adult males; hemoglobin <12g/dl or hematocrit <37% in adult females. Anemia can be caused by many factors; nutritional deficiency is the commonest among all. Though it is prevalent in all the countries but it is a major concern in developing countries like India as the commonest cause is nutritional deficiency which is a treatable cause. Children < 5 years and pregnant females are the most affected groups suffering from nutritional deficiency anemia and their complications.

There are 33 blood groups recognized by the international society of blood transfusion.1 In the past many studies are conducted to find out the relation between blood group and Hb levels. In our study we have tried to establish this correlation in the pregnant females in rural population as anemia is a major concern in pregnancy as it is the state which further lowers the hemoglobin levels due to hemodilution and increases the anemia related complication affecting the pregnancy outcome.

Aim and Objective

To establish the correlation of hemoglobin level and blood groups in pregnant population.

Materials and Methods

Blood groups and hemoglobin levels are investigated during antenatal checkup. We have taken data of 120 pregnant females age ranging from 19 to 38 years visited to the OPD for routine antenatal checkups. Blood groups were detected by slide method and hemoglobin by Sahli’s method.

Result

Table 1

Commonest blood group: A positive followed by B positive

Blood Groups

Hb gm% (min. value)

Hb gm% (max. value)

Hb gm%(Average value)

A positive

8

11.2

9.9

B positive

8.2

11

9.6

AB positive

8.6

11.2

10.0

O positive

8.0

11

9.7

B negative

9.6

10.6

10.1

Anemia is most prevalent in blood group B positive.

Discussion

Anemia is common in pregnancy due to hemodilution which worsen the condition and makes a pregnant female severely anemic if the hemoglobin levels are low before conception itself. There are studies in the past which suggest that certain blood groups are more prone for anemia. Pernicious anemia is more common in A blood group.2 In a study done among the Bengalee family, low hemoglobin levels were observed in A1 and O blood groups.3 Mahapatra et al. also have found comparable differences in blood hemoglobin values in different types of ABO blood groups.4 Similar study was also done by Ramalingam et al.5 In our study we have tried to further establish this relationship. A positive was the most common blood group with average hemoglobin level of 9.9 gm/dl followed by B positive. In this study anemia was most prevalent in blood group B positive. B negative blood group has highest level of mean hemoglobin level of 10.1.

Conclusion

This study provides a background to screen the blood groups more prone to anemia which can be further supported by conducting study among a larger population. This screening helps to detect the pregnant females which can require treatment and follow up to avoid the severe anemia and its complications to improve the outcome of pregnancy.

Source of Funding

None.

Conflict of Interest

None.

References

1 

GP Rath R Mitra N Mishra Blood groups systemsIndian J Anaesth2014585524810.4103/0019-5049.144645

2 

An association between blood group A and pernicious anemia; a collective series from number of centresBr Med J195627234

3 

DP Mukherjee MK Das Low hemoglobin levels in A1and O blood groupsHum Hered1983332137

4 

B Mahapatra A Chinara P Purohit A comparative analysis of total haemoglobin level and red blood cells count in ABO blood groups of healthy adultsInt J Res Med Sci20197114326910.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20195010

5 

L Ramalingam G Raghavan Association between blood groups and blood hemoglobin levels in rural population of Kanchipuram district of Tamil NaduNatl J Physiol, Pharm Pharmacol2020100110.5455/njppp.2020.10.04090202020042020



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Article History

Received : 21-04-2021

Accepted : 15-05-2021

Available online : 13-08-2021


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Article DOI

https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijpo.2021.087


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