Greeting of the New Year! As we dawn into a new era hoping that not only we would be COVID-19 free henceforth but a new ray of hope will come in with the advent of vaccine era. Indian once thought to be a low profile country showed to the world as to how well it can handle a global hazard-the CORONA pandemic but also is amongst the top nations to start the indigenously manufactured vaccine against this deadly virus alongside catering to the demands of some of the developed countries as well.
The present issue of IJPO has a rich blend of articles from all the fields of diagnostics. Head and neck cancers are on a rise probably due to their early diagnosis and detection. Use of agents that enhance the incidence of cancer in these areas is being reported by Sharma in their research work. Precancerous lesions carry on equally great significance since they may turn into malignant lesions later on.1
Cytological evaluation of respiratory tract fluids is important for early diagnosis and detection of malignancy. Varun in their publication stressed on increase effects of these fluids in lung carcinoma. Bronchoalveolar lavage is a better specimen than sputum in identifying the malignant cells. Early diagnosis carries a favourable outcome.2 Pleural fluid cytology carries significance in the detection of metastatic lesions to the pleura. Cytology coupled with the use of ancillary techniques helps in arriving at a diagnosis. Even rare malignances, can be effectively diagnosis using these methods.3
Breast cancer is on the rise not only in the developed countries but also in the developing nations. Immunohistochemical markers are used for estimating the prognosis as well as from the treatment point of view. Triple negative breast cancers are categorized as high grade as well as are prognostically unfavourable. Furthermore, this subset is increasing in incidence in the recent times. Increasing number of cases of BRCA1 expressions also indicate a poor prognosis. Use of PARP inhibitor may be helpful at times.4
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the commonest type of primary gastrointestinal lymphoma. It carries significance especially since most of the patients respond well to treatment but majority become refractory or tend to relapse. Different prognostic markers, indicating response to therapy and the survival rate are available. Expression of MUM-1, a poor prognostic indicator is one such immunologic marker determining the prognosis. The authors in their article have highlighted this.5
Adnexal masses are a common presentation in gynecologic pathology. It mainly refers to ovarian tumours, that have a varied presentation. Their diversity poses great dilemma for the gynecologist as well as the diagnostician. The authors have meticulously segregated the lesions into different categories and also have labeled them. As per the authors serous cystadenoma, a benign condition constitutes the commonest subtype.6
Gastric carcinoma is a lethal malignancy and constitutes significant percentage of human cancers. The important site includes the antrum followed by the lesser curvature. Patel et al. identified tubular adenocarcinoma as the commonest subtype of malignancy. Support of ancillary techniques may help in the confirmation of diagnosis as well as in the planning of targeted therapy.7
I am sure that this issue would provide great insight to the reader in satisfying their hunger for study material. I thank the authors and reviewers for their constant support to IJPO.