A clinicopathological study of ovarian endometriotic cysts

Original Article

Author Details : Archana Shivamurthy*, Deepika Gurumurthy

Volume : 8, Issue : 3, Year : 2021

Article Page : 377-381


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Introduction: Endometriosis is an important gynecologic disorder with multifactorial causes, primarily affecting women during their reproductive years. Pathologically, it is the result of functional endometrium located outside the uterus which may vary from microscopic endometriotic implants to large cysts. Endometriotic cysts and infertility is a well-known association. Some patients are asymptomatic while others present with disabling pelvic pain, infertility, or adnexal masses. Cyst aspiration, fenestration and ablation of cyst wall are commonly performed surgical procedures. Excision of the cyst wall is an accepted surgical treatment owing to the low recurrence rates.
Materials and Methods: A total of 35 patients who underwent ovarian cystectomy for endometriotic cysts between January 2019 and December 2020 were retrospectively identified. The clinical findings, gross and histopathological features were noted in each case. Microscopically, the presence or absence of ovarian tissue adjacent to the cyst wall was evaluated. If ovarian tissue was present, the morphologic characteristics were graded on a semi-quantitative scale of 0-4 as described by Muzii et al.
Results: The age group of patients ranged between 22-28yrs. Right side cysts accounted for the majority, however 6 cases had bilateral endometriotic cysts. Majority of patients presented with primary infertility (46.2%). The maximum weight recorded for these cysts was 35gm, size ranging between 4.5 to 18cm and median thickness of the cyst wall being 0.7cm. 68% of the cysts showed a lining epithelium, few showing atypia and oncocytic change. Fibrosis and hemosiderin laden macrophages were present in more than 70% of cases and endometrial glands and stroma in more than 50%. Inflammation when present was predominantly lymphocytic. On evaluation of the ovarian tissue, 42.8% of cases showed no follicles and the rest showing grades ranging from 1 to 4, with grade 1 accounting for majority.
Conclusion: The present study further emphasizes endometriosis to be an important cause of primary infertility which needs to be recognized and treated appropriately. Recognition of these cysts on histopathological examination can be challenging at times when endometrial stroma is scant and in cases of tubo-ovarian masses where these lesions could mimic malignancy. The excision of endometriotic cyst wall may cause loss of functional ovarian tissue in patients with primary infertility and thus could effect the response to ovarian stimulation, ocyte recovery, implantation and fertilization rates in these patients.

Keywords: Endometriosis, Cysts, Infertility, Ovary.

How to cite : Shivamurthy A, Gurumurthy D, A clinicopathological study of ovarian endometriotic cysts. Indian J Pathol Oncol 2021;8(3):377-381

Copyright © 2021 by author(s) and Indian J Pathol Oncol. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (creativecommons.org)

Article History

Received : 22-06-2021

Accepted : 30-06-2021

Available online : 13-08-2021

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